Tomus 24, num. 1

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Tomus 24, num. 1 – ŠIMEČKA, M. M. – POSCH, M. – BOHUŠ, M.: Všetko malo byť inak. Slovensko po roku 1945. Bratislava : CEEV Živica, 2020. (A. Crkoňová – P. Molnárová)

ŠIMEČKA, M. M. – POSCH, M. – BOHUŠ, M.: Všetko malo byť inak. Slovensko po roku 1945. Bratislava : CEEV Živica, 2020. (A. Crkoňová – P. Molnárová)

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Tomus 24, num. 1 – Nomen Danielis numquam peribit… Prof. PhDr. Daniel Škoviera, PhD. (30. november 1946, Mikulášová – 24. február 2021, Bratislava) (I. Nagy)

Nomen Danielis numquam peribit… Prof. PhDr. Daniel Škoviera, PhD. (30. november 1946, Mikulášová – 24. február 2021, Bratislava) (I. Nagy)

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Tomus 24, num. 1 – ANTONIUK, J. – IĽNYCʼKYJ, V.: Súdna a disciplinárna prax v Ukrajinskej povstaleckej armáde (1943 – 1947)

Súdna a disciplinárna prax v Ukrajinskej povstaleckej armáde (1943 – 1947)

JAROSLAV ANTONIUK – VASYĽ IĽNYCʼKYJ
Rezortný štátny archív Bezpečnostnej služby Ukrajiny – Drohobyčská štátna pedagogická univerzita Ivana Franka / Národná akadémia pozemných vojsk hajtmana Petra Sahajdačného, Ukrajina

Judicial and disciplinary practice in the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (1943 – 1947)

Abstract: The article analyzes the functioning principles of judicial and disciplinary practice in the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA). It was discovered that the practice started in the summer of 1943 in Volyn and Western Polissya. At the end of that same year, the insurgent judicial system spread to Galicia as well as the neighboring territories of eastern Poland. It was proven that the main judicial and disciplinary bodies in the UPA units were the «Field Courts». At the commander’s initiative, they convened for every sotnia. The verdicts were passed on the basis of the «Disciplinary Statute», which was used in conditions of the special period of armed liberation struggle. The crimes in it were divided into minor and serious. The accused were executed for the latter ones. The verdict was approved by the commander of the relevant insurgent unit. The minor offenses were mostly dealt with by the «Cossack courts». They were convened by the commanders of the insurgent units in the case of: drunkenness, non-compliance with the order without serious consequences, minor thefts. The sentences were: sending to «punitive divisions», «punitive arrest», «beating with sticks» in front of the rank, «rack under a gun» or «falling on the ground» on command. In the event the crime was repetitive, the punishment was intensified.

Keywords: Ukrainian Insurgent Army, judicial and disciplinary practice, verdict, crimes, punishments, «Field court», «Cossack courts».

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Tomus 24, num. 1 – KRAJČOVIČ, P.: Franz Josef Beranek a jeho výskum nemecky hovoriacich drevorubačov – Huncokárov

Franz Josef Beranek a jeho výskum nemecky hovoriacich drevorubačov – Huncokárov

PAVOL KRAJČOVIČ
Filozofická fakulta Univerzity sv. Cyrila a Metoda v Trnave

Franz Josef Beranek and his research of german speaking woodsmen – Huncokars

Abstract: This paper deals with the person of sudetengerman ethnographic researcher Franz Josef Beranek and his research about the community of german speaking woodsmen – Huncokars. The first part is focused on the historico-geographical characteristics of huncokar settlements. The second part deals with the person of Beranek and his career. The third part deals with the Beranek´s research of huncokar comunnity. Main goal of my study is analysis of scientific literature, articles or monographies written by Beranek, which deals with the Huncokars primarily or secondarily.

Keywords: Franz Josef Beranek, Huncokars, Ethnographic research, Little Carpathians, Western Slovakia, Nazi Germany.

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Tomus 24, num. 1 – BRUJA, R. F.: The reflection of Slovak politics in 1940 in Nicolae Lahovary’s diplomatic reports

The reflection of Slovak politics in 1940 in Nicolae Lahovary’s diplomatic reports

RADU FLORIAN BRUJA
Ştefan cel Mare University, Suceava, Romania

Abstract: In the study we present and interpret the activities of the Romanian diplomat Nicolae Eric Lahovary, who served as an ambassador to the Slovak Republic from March 1940 to March 1941. Although he was ambassador until March 1941, we focus only at his perception of the internal and foreign policy of the Slovak Republic, as well as the form of mutual relations between Slovakia and Romania until September 1940. This perception is based mainly on his diplomatic reports that have been sent regularly to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Kingdom of Romania.

Keywords: Nicolae Eric Lahovary, Foreign Policy, Diplomacy, Kingdom of Romania, Slovak Republic, 1940.

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Tomus 24, num. 1 – KOMJÁTI, Z. I.: The Problems of the Military Provisions and Payouts and Their Consequences during the Upper Hungary Campaign of 1664

The Problems of the Military Provisions and Payouts and Their Consequences during the Upper Hungary Campaign of 1664

ZOLTÁN IGOR KOMJÁTI
Private researcher, Abasár, Hungary

Abstract: This study concentrates on the financial and alimentative problems of the Anti-Turkish Campaign of Upper Hungary in 1664, and on the military abuses derived from the shortage of the adequate supplying. Due to the often happening contemporary logistic shortages and the exiguousness of the Hungarian resources, the Imperial War Council supplied with difficulty the German–Hungarian Army led by General Louis de Souches and Stephen I. Koháry, General-Captain of Fiľakovo (who was commissioned twice to Commander of the Hungarian Troops during the campaign). The obtaining of the payout was always on the agenda in the agreements with the county magistrates, and by order of Palatine Francis Wesselényi, the magnates and the prelates were also obliged to surrender grain crops and other foods. In spite of the very often shortage of supplying, the commanders managed to solve the problems, and the Christian Army successfully re-captured Nitra and Levice, and were also victorious on the battlefield of Žarnovica and Hronský Beňadik. But the encamped soldiers were encouraged by the unsystematic paying and food supplying to pillage the inhabitants of the surrounding settlements. The campaign also gave an opportunity for the looting of the vagrant soldiers who often could not be called to account for their crimes, because they did not serve under the banners. To avoid the pillages and atrocities, the only solution was that trusted and disciplinable soldiers were recruited in the camp, and by means of issuing strict orders, the commerce of the stolen livestock were forbidden in all of free and royal towns. The magistrates of certain settlements and other owners asked for safe-conduct or safeguard garrison from the commanders trying to assure the protection for the inhabitants and their belongings.

Keywords: Military Provisions, Hungarian-Ottoman conflict, Upper Hungary, early modern period.

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Tomus 24, num. 1 – MOLNÁROVÁ, P.: August 1968 v politicko-ideologických heslách na stránkach dennej tlače

August 1968 v politicko-ideologických heslách na stránkach dennej tlače

PATRÍCIA MOLNÁROVÁ
Filozofická fakulta Univerzity Mateja Bela v Banskej Bystrici

August 1968 in political and ideological slogans in daily paper

Abstract: The interdisciplinary oriented paper connects the linguistic, literary and media components against the background of the historical context. The study deals with political and ideological slogans published in the daily paper in 1968. It is structured into a theoretical part, which presents the basic terminological and contextual background, the function and meaning of political-ideological slogans in the press of the Communist party. The slogan is perceived here as a linguistic-communicative part of a specific language of the period of socialism, which was formed in an ideologically motivated space. On the other hand, the analysis focuses on the intertextual aspects of slogans and the basic motivic areas captured in it. The aim of the study is to reflect the events associated with the invasion of Warsaw Pact troops into Czechoslovakia through the intertextuality of slogans published from August 21 to September 21, 1968 in five Slovak dailies with national and regional validity. The analysis focuses on the intertextual motives of slogans and the basic motivic components from the field of politics, literature, culture or contemporary ideology captured in it.

Keywords: 1968, Czechoslovakia, ideology, journalism, slogans, socialism, Soviet invasion.

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Tomus 24, num. 1 – HETÉNYI, M.: Mestská politická elita v Nitre v 30. a 40. rokoch 20. storočia. K otázke personálnych zmien s dôrazom na postavenie starostu Františka Mojta

Mestská politická elita v Nitre v 30. a 40. rokoch 20. storočia. K otázke personálnych zmien s dôrazom na postavenie starostu Františka Mojta

MARTIN HETÉNYI
Filozofická fakulta Univerzity Konštantína Filozofa v Nitre

The urban political elite in Nitra in the 1930s and 1940s. On the issue of personnel changes with emphasis on the position of Mayor František Mojto

Abstract: The consequences that usually result from crises of regimes and changes in political-economic systems are the exchange of power political elites. This happened several times in Slovakia in the first half of the 20th century. From the central level of politics, the changes have been affected in the next stages of its lower grades – regions, towns and municipalities. The contribution submitted focuses on the 1930s and 1940s, when an authoritarian popular regime with totalitarian elements was established in Slovakia. In a case study of the long-time leader of Nitra, František Mojto, the author tries to outline the legitimacy and agility of the Nitra political elite. On his example, we can explicitly observe remarkable ways in the process of handing power over or cooperation of political actors at all levels of the state and party apparatus. At the same time, his case signals to us the continuity of personnel with the democratic Czechoslovak Republic, which, however, was rather the exception at the national level as a rule.

Keywords: Municipal Government, Nitra, Elite, 30th and 40th years of 20th century.

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Tomus 24, num. 1 – REHORČÍKOVÁ, T.: Zdôrazňovanie apoštolskej tradície v sporoch s heretikmi – Rím ako privilegované miesto tejto tradície

Zdôrazňovanie apoštolskej tradície v sporoch s heretikmi – Rím ako privilegované miesto tejto tradície

TEREZA REHORČÍKOVÁ
Bratislava

Focusing on apostolic tradition in the conflicts with the heretics – Rome as privileged place of this tradition

Abstract: The apostolic churches, as guarantors of orthodox doctrine, had generally higher authority than all other churches, because it was believed that the apostolic faith was certainly preserved in them. In the fight against gnosis in the second half of the 2nd century, Christian authors argued with the apostolicity of the church and they used to use the Roman Church as the perfect and the most appropriate example precisely because of its exceptional apostolic origin. The first author and witness of this state is Hegesippus, whose argument – the preservation of true apostolic faith due to succession of bishops in every church where he used Rome as the best example – was deepened by Ireneus of Lyon. Rome has in his Adversus Haereses the “fullness” of apostolicity, is the most apostolic church of all churches thanks to its connection to both Peter and Paul and their martyrdoms. Therefore, every other church in which the apostolic faith and tradition is preserved must ipso facto agree with Rome. Moving forward Rome is the best example for demonstrating apostolicity of the whole church. The question for the last analysed author from this period – Tertullian – was how to discern from the heretic and apostolic reading of the Scripture since Gnostics used the same texts with completely different explanation. The answer was (to put the simplest) the apostolic faith itself. It is again passed through generations thanks to succession of bishops and the best places where to verify it are apostolic churches. Rome is not as obviously named as the best example; the fortresses of the true faith the apostolic churches were equal, still the Rome in his enumeration covers more place. It is the testimony of the very high reverence for Roman church, which was quite common during the whole Christian antiquity.

Keywords: apostolic tradition, church of Rome, Ireneus of Lyon, succession of bishops, papal primacy.

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