Tomus 25, num. 1 – LUKÁČ, M.: K problematike pečatného symbolu a erbu mesta Krupina

K problematike pečatného symbolu a erbu mesta Krupina

MIROSLAV LUKÁČ
Múzeum Andreja Sládkoviča v Krupine

On the issue of the seal symbol and coat of arms of the town of Krupina

Abstract: The author discusses the existence and dating of the Krupina town’s seals and the motivations for accepting the seal symbol (later the coat of arms as well) of the Lamb of God of Krupina, whereas based on the analogies of towns in Hungary or abroad he contemplates the influence of the paradigm of medieval society and its focus on eternal life that leads to the Kingdom of heaven to the Savior, Jesus Christ. The author points to the possible connection of the symbol with the church dedication of the main parish church of the Blessed Virgin Mary. He also deals with the view of older literature, which derived its acceptance into the seals of the town from the coins of Hungarian rulers who were associated with the origins of the town of Krupina. Jesus Christ (symbolically depicted as the Lamb of God) is an attribute of the Virgin Mary in Christian iconography and was constantly depicted together with the mother, Virgin Mary, similarly to the fashion it was implemented in Krupina. At the same time, the Lamb was a symbol of the heavenly Jerusalem, a perfect city, which was a model and ideal of the earthly city, and thus of the community of the Krupina townspeople. The authority of the Savior is thus symbolically linked to the authority of the king and also to the authority of the burghers, as well as to the legal force of the documents they issued. This could have been one of the motivations of the Krupina townspeople to adopt this symbol into the seals of the town. At the same time, it is possible to assume an increase in the influence of rectors of the main parish church in the town, who probably performed the duties of the first notaries of the town of Krupina.

Keywords: seal symbol, coat of arms, Lamb of God, town of Krupina, towns in Hungary, church dedications, Hungary, Slovakia, Middle Age, 13th – 16th century.

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Tomus 25, num. 1 – KOMJÁTI, Z. I.: “…It is impossible to endure the above mentioned serious matters and grievous injuries…” Misunderstandings between István II. Koháry, General-Captain of Fiľakovo and the Nobility (1667–1682)

“…It is impossible to endure the above mentioned serious matters and grievous injuries…”
Misunderstandings between István II. Koháry, General-Captain of Fiľakovo and the Nobility (1667–1682)

ZOLTÁN IGOR KOMJÁTI
Private researcher, Abasár, Hungary

Abstract: In the 17th century Fiľakovo was not only the base for the royal garrison, but at the same time the fort was the seat of three counties: Novohrad, Pest-Pilis-Solt and Heves and Külső-Szolnok earlier fleeing before the Ottomans. By the common sense and the practical reason, we could believe that the dependency on each other, the mutual national interest and the patriotic solidarity would bring about cooperation between the border soldiers and the nobility. The stark reality was, however, that they could not agree: mutual accusations, disagreements, atrocities, severe debates — occasionally with the intention to kill — characterised the relationship of the Fiľakovo troops and the nobility residing or temporarily staying in the border castle. The main problem was the lack of supplies for the army. As the border soldiers did not receive their dues, they procured food and goods needed for their living and clothing from the nearby settlements in the county, which was ever so often violent. The county nobility was deeply harmed by the attacks of the soldiers that not only hindered their living, but they saw it as the derogation of their ancient noble rights and their sanctity, which they could not tolerate. As a result the nobility had to limit the privileges of the Fiľakovo border soldiers that the other party could not stand, either. The war between the two social strata both regarding themselves privileged precipitated in legal debates: who is to accuse and punish the guilty and captured border soldiers? who has the right to call to account and punish the guilty captured soldiers? whose jurisdiction is stronger and in what case? Heves and Külső-Szolnok County sent their representatives either together with other counties or on its own to Pál Esterházy, Ferenc Nádasdy, then from 1670 to Ádám Forgách, Chief Judge of Hungary, but they could have even presented their grievances to the Emperor. The other frontline of the confrontation between the two parties manifested in the use of violence. People were treated roughly by the soldiers due to the mutual conflict, but the village inhabitants instigated by the County Magistrate did not hold themselves back when capturing a soldier. This way, there were often human casualties. When a person of noble origin committed an atrocity, no matter how significant it was he was treated carefully and judgement was very slow. This is shown in the study through the case of Menyhért Ebeczky, the Deputy-Lord-Lieutenant of Novohrad County and Noble Judge of Heves and Külső-Szolnok County from 1678.

Keywords: István II. Koháry, Fiľakovo castle, Ottoman-Hungarian conflict, border defence.

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Tomus 25, num. 1 – RIGOVÁ, V.: Sonda do problematiky ústavnej starostlivosti o deti v Slovenskom štáte na príklade okresných detských domovov

Sonda do problematiky ústavnej starostlivosti o deti v Slovenskom štáte na príklade okresných detských domovov

VIKTÓRIA RIGOVÁ
Katedra histórie, Filozofická fakulta, Univerzita Konštantína
Filozofa v Nitre

A probe into the issue of institutional care for children in the Slovak State illustrated by the example of District children´s homes

Abstract: The history of District children´s homes in Slovakia dates back to the period of interwar Czechoslovakia. They were founded and managed by the District youth cares, overseen by the Slovak Youth Care Centre in Bratislava. During the existence of the Slovak State, these institutions represented the most important organizers and implementers of social care for children and youth. The District children´s homes formed a network of private institutional care for worthy children, they served as centres of organized family care in the district. In 1942 there were 25 of these orphanages. They accepted only healthy children, called “normal” during the period that is the subject of this paper. In the case of District children´s homes, as a principle, children were placed in them only for provisional, temporary period. Children who were explicitly abandoned belonged to the state institutional care, followed by care in foster families. Children were admitted at the request of relatives, the home village, the district court or fiduciaries based in District youth cares. Qualified educators were in charge of education in the District children´s homes.

Keywords: Children, District Children´s Homes, Social Care, Slovak Republic.

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Tomus 25, num. 1 – KORNOVENKO, S. – MOROZOV, A.: Ukrajinská etnogenéza: antský kmeňový zväz

Ukrajinská etnogenéza: antský kmeňový zväz

SERHIJ KORNOVENKO – ANATOLIJ MOROZOV
Čerkaská národná univerzita Bohdana Chmelnického,
Ukrajina

Ukrainian ethnogenesis: Ante tribal union

Abstract: Scientific research and explanation of the Ukrainian ethnogenesis of the 3rd–7th century, i.e. the social, economic and military-political life of the Ante tribal union is currently very relevant. There are several basic approaches within the scientific-historical heritage of the Ante issue formed from the second half of the 19th to the beginning of the 21st century. Some authors point to the non-Slavic origin of the Antes, other researchers justify their Slavic origin and some of researchers prove that the Antes appeared in historical sources under its own name and they are the direct ancestors of the Ukrainian nation. Despite the numerous historiographical heritages of the history of the Ante tribal union, not all questions of this scientific problem are fully and evenly explained. There are some controversial moments as well. Considering this fact, the authors of the study aim to research the Ukrainian ethnogenesis of the 3rd–7th century, i.e. socio-economic and socio-political life of the Ante tribal union. The object of the research is thus the Ante tribal union; the subject of research is the etymology of the ethnonym „Ant“, the first written reports, the economic basis of the Ante tribal union and its socio-political and military organisation.

Keywords: the Antes, Ante tribal union, Ukrainian ethnogenesis.

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Tomus 25, num. 1 – KMEŤOVÁ, M.: Zahraničná politika Druhej poľskej republiky a vzťahy so Sovietskym zväzom po poľsko-ruskej vojne

Zahraničná politika Druhej poľskej republiky a vzťahy so Sovietskym zväzom po poľsko-ruskej vojne

MARIANNA KMEŤOVÁ
Katedra politológie, Fakulta politických vied a medzinárodných vzťahov, Univerzita Mateja Bela v Banskej Bystrici

Foreign Policy of the Second Republic of Poland and its relations with the Soviet Union after the Russo-Polish War

Abstract: After the restoration of Polish statehood in 1918, its foreign policy began to rebuild. Its limits were given mainly by its geopolitical location between the two great powers – Germany and Russia, respectively. Soviet Union. Although those states were in the position of defeated or ostracized ones after the war, they always had hidden territorial interests in Poland and did not intend to ac-cept the loss of territory in favor of a restored Poland. The relations with the Bolshevik Soviet Union, with which Poland led the bloody war until 1921, which resulted in the acquisition of western Lithuanian, Belarusian and Ukrainian territories, were particularly pronounced. Thus, the interwar Polish policy had to face with the still difficult task of maneuvering between these two stronger powers, which have become hegemons of power in this part of Europe since the thirties years. Although Polish foreign policy tried to maintain the necessary alliances with the guarantors of the after-Versailles division of Europe, especially with France and Great Britain, respectively to build the concepts of one’s own power-security bloc (so-called Intermare), the revisionist policies of the neighboring great powers became decisive for its future. Because the growing confrontational policy of Nazi Germany, the relationship with the Soviet Union became crucial. Unfortunately, in those relations, despite efforts to build regional collective security systems, the aversions and fears caused by the recent war were never overcome. The inability to agree on a common defense or the promotion of wider collective security and the excessive relations distinctiveness of Warsaw and Moscow ultimately meant the victory of pursuing only one’s own power and security interests. This, with the reality of encirclement by the totalitarian powers, ultimately resulted in a tragic so-called Fourth Division of Poland.

Keywords: Poland, inter-war period of the 20th century, geopolitics, international relations, Soviet Union.

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Tomus 25, num. 1 – Jubileum PhDr. Marty Mácelovej, PhD. (P. Maliniak)

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Tomus 25, num. 1 – STEINMETZ, G.: Najbohatší muž všetkých čias. Život a doba Jakoba Fuggera. Žilina : Absynt, 2021. (P. Molnárová)

STEINMETZ, Greg: Najbohatší muž všetkých čias. Život a doba Jakoba Fuggera. Žilina : Absynt, 2021. 315 s. ISBN 978-80-8203-260-7. Preklad: Samuel Marec.

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Tomus 25, num. 1 – JESENSKÝ, M. (ed.): Belianum. Zo života a diela Mateja Bela. Banská Bystrica : Belianum. Vydavateľstvo Univerzity Mateja Bela, 2021. (D. Chalupeková)

JESENSKÝ, Miloš (ed.): Belianum. Zo života a diela Mateja Bela. Banská Bystrica : Belianum. Vydavateľstvo Univerzity Mateja Bela v Banskej Bystrici, 2021. 220 s. ISBN 978-80-557-1895-8

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Tomus 25, num. 1

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Tomus 24, num. 2 – BAGI, D.: Nové možnosti prístupu k výskumu dejín vojvodstva v 11. storočí

Nové možnosti prístupu k výskumu dejín vojvodstva v 11. storočí

DÁNIEL BAGI
Katedra dejín východnej a strednej Európy,
Inštitút histórie, Filozofická fakulta, Univerzita Loránda Eötvösa,
Budapešť

New possibilities of approach to research the history of the duchy in the 11th century

Abstract: The study presents previous research on the history of the duchy in Hungarian, Czechoslovak (Czech) and Polish historiography as well. It also represents a new research concept. The Arpads‘ system of power division in the 11th century cannot be considered either as a model of state development or as a mere exercise of dynastic inheritance or family law. Instead of research on the state development, it is more appropriate to proceed from the then understanding of law and the organization of society, contained primarily in narrative sources and then situate the history of the duchy into it. The basis of this order had been represented by the system of relations between free people, based on a friendship confirmed by an oath. We can assume that these interpersonal relations had also determined the competence of the duchy and dukes. When comparing the Arpad dynasty duchy with similar constitutions of the Piast and Přemyslid dynasties, we can state that the territorial power division does not necessarily correspond to the authority/competent one. We still do not know the exact territorial extent of the duchy in the Kingdom of Hungary. However, we can say with certainty that its centers, unlike the Piast ones, had only slightly affected the main royal residences. While good relations had been lasting in the ruling dynasty, the dukes had important competencies. These competencies meant a share in the royal power, so the agreement had primarily represented the division of competencies. This might explain why kings and dukes regularly appear together in the main positions of the country, together representing the ruling power. The model of the power division between the Arpads in the 11th century was thus primarily family-based. It was based on consensus among family members. According to this consensus, the power division affecting the whole country had been in the ratio 2 : 1. The sources do not mention exactly what the members of the ruling family had divided among themselves. We can suppose that the reason was because it was not necessary, since the Hungarian chronicler understood the term divisio regni in the meaning of the disputes over the throne, as well as the power division.

Keywords: royal duchy, the Árpád dynasty, the Kingdom of Hungary, power division.

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